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Table 6 Phenotypes across sleep apnea severity categories

From: Distinct polysomnographic and ECG-spectrographic phenotypes embedded within obstructive sleep apnea

Phenotype across apnea severity categories Mild Moderate Severe Extreme Chi2, p, for phenotypes across categories
Chemoreflex phenotype—PSG (CAI ≥ 5/hour of sleep) 0 (0%) 1 (0.25%) 13 (4.1%) 15 (8%) 44.86, <0.001
Chemoreflex phenotype—spectrogram (e-LFCNB present) 4 (7.4%) 70 (23.7%) 75 (23.4%) 67 (35.6%) 4.83, 0.19
Sleep fragmentation phenotype—sleep efficiency ≤ 70% 13 (18.6%) 82 (20.8%) 53 (16.6%) 48 (25.5%) 6.16, 0.10
Sleep fragmentation phenotype—N1 ≥ 30% 3 (4.3%) 24 (6.1%) 45 (14.1%) 76 (40.4%) 124.78, <0.001
Sleep fragmentation phenotype—WASO ≥ 60 min 38 (54.3%) 240 (60.9%) 196 (61.3%) 136 (72.3%) 10.42, 0.02
Sleep fragmentation phenotype—spectrogram (HFC ≤ 30%) 9 (16.7%) 75 (25.3%) 80 (38.3%) 79 (70.5%)  
Sleep consolidation phenotype—sleep efficiency ≥ 90% 22 (31.4%) 76 (19.3%) 55 (17.2%) 27 (14.4%) 9.89, 0.02
Sleep consolidation phenotype—N1 ≤ 10% 42 (60%) 157 (39.9%) 85 (26.6%) 33 (17.6%) 58.01, <0.001
Sleep consolidation phenotype—WASO ≤ 30 min 15 21.4%) 57 (14.5%) 34 (10.6%) 15 (8%) 11.08, 0.01
Sleep consolidation phenotype—spectrogram (HFC ≥ 50%) 28 (51.9%) 126 (42.6%) 61 (29.2%) 15 (12.3%) 2.46, 0.48
  1. WASO wake after sleep onset; N1 stage 1 NREM sleep; CAI central apnea index; HFC high frequency coupling; LFC low frequency coupling; e-LFC NB narrow band e-LFC