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Table 1 Demographic Characteristics along with Pre- and Post- CPAP means, standard deviations, mean differences, and confidence intervals for REM rebound percentage

From: Rapid Eye Movement (REM) rebound on initial exposure to CPAP therapy: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Author, year Study type Definition of REM rebound Number Age, years BMI, Kg/m2 Pre-CPAP REM % Post-CPAP REM% MD (95% CI) P-value
Brillante et al. 2012 Retrospective 20% or more increase in % REM sleep on titration night when compared to baseline PSG 335 54.0 ± 13.9 33.3 ± 7.3 16.9 ± 7.8 18.4 ± 8.8 1.5 (2.762, 0.238) 0.0199
Koo et al. 2012 Retrospective At least one REM period of >/30 min duration in the treatment portion AND an increase in REM in the treatment portion of >/20% 95 56.7 ± 11.1 35.0 ± 7.0 6.7 ± 9.3 23.3 ± 15.1 16.5 (12.911, 20.089) 0.0001
Kushida et al. 2011 Prospective Randomized, controlled trial - 57 48.8 ± 12 34.9 ± 8.0 13.1 ± 9.0 22.8 ± 8.4 9.7 (6.469, 12.931) 0.0001
Yaegashi et al. 2009 Retrospective - 280 58.6 ± 14.7 25.7 ± 3.9 13.1 ± 6.2 18.1 ± 7.0 5.0 (3.902, 6.098) 0.0001
Osuna et al. 2008 Retrospective 6% or more increase in % REM sleep on titration night when compared to baseline PSG 179 (118 M + 61 F) 48.6 ± 4 (M) 51.6 ± 12.9 (F)c 33.7 ± 7.7 (M) 39.2 ± 8.2 (F)c 15.55 21.57 - -
Drake et al. 2003 Prospective - 71 50.7 ± 10.6 - 12.8 ± 5.6 19.1 ± 8.9 6.3 (3.833, 8.767) 0.0001
Verma et al. 2001 Retrospective - 44 51.6   12.1 ± 8.3a 12.7 ± 9.0b 17.2 ± 8.1a 15.6 ± 8.6b 5.1 (1.624,8.576) 2.9 (−0.831, 6.631) 0.0045 0.1259
Randerath et al. 2001 Prospective - 25 52.8 ± 9.0 31.4 ± 5.0 14.2 ± 6.7 17.1 ± 7.4 2.9 (−1.114, 6.914) 0.1529
Parrino et al. 2000 Retrospective - 10 47.4 ± 5.3 >36 81 ± 30d 149 ± 32d 68 (38.86, 97.14) 0.0001
Collard et al. 1996 Prospective - 80 52.1 ± 10.6 33.4 ± 6.6 17.8 ± 6.9 21.9 ± 9.5 4.1 (1.507, 6.693) 0.0021
Yamashiro and Kryger 1995 Prospective - 107 52.3 ± 12.1 34.4 ± 8.2 11.2 ± 9.5 25.3 ± 14.4 14.1 (10.812, 17.388) 0.0001
Lamphere et al. 1989 Prospective - 13 50.1 ± 11.6e 35.6 ± 9.5 9.2 ± 6.4 20.4 ± 8.7 11.2 (5.018, 17.382) 0.0010
Aldrich et al. 1989 Prospective - 26 47 - 43.1 ± 5.4d 73.3 ± 6.9d 30.2 (26.749, 33.651) 0.0001
Issa and Sullivan 1986 Prospective - 12 47.4   18.4 ± 2.0 30.6 ± 2.0 12.2 (10.507, 13.893) 0.0001
Combined Means   53.65 ± 12.60 34.58 ± 11.20 13.82 ± 8.17 19.99 ± 10.06 6.17 (5.408, 6.931) 0.0001
1252 1171 1119 1119  
  1. Note: Osuna, Parrino & Aldrich studies were not included for combined means for REM sleep percentage given missing standard deviations for Osuna study and Parrino & Aldrich reported minutes rather than percentage. In Verma et al. study, only patientsa who report improvement on CPAP were included for combined means
  2. N sample size, MD mean difference, CI confidence interval
  3. aDenotes: % REM sleep in patients who noted an improvement (CPAP PSG Likert scale score –diagnostic PSG Likert scale score > 0) and
  4. bDenotes: % REM sleep in patients that did not note an improvement (CPAP PSG Likert scale score - diagnostic PSG Likert scale score less than or equal to 0)
  5. cDenotes individual average for males and females respectively, i.e. 48.6 ± 4 for males (M), and 51.6 ± 12.9 for females (F)
  6. dDenotes amount of REM sleep attained in minutes, not the Percentage of Total sleep time spent in REM
  7. eDenotes average values for the entire cohort of 39 patient prior to randomization while other values listed herein depict the numbers obtained from 1st night CPAP titration cohort after randomization