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Table 2 Hierarchical Multiple Linear Regression Analyses of Purpose in Life and Sleep Quality

From: Is purpose in life associated with less sleep disturbance in older adults?

   B SE β p F R 2
Sleep Quality at Baseline (n = 814) Step 1      2.41 (4) * .012
 Sex −.324 .234 −.049 .167   
 Years of Education −.016 .032 −.018 .618   
 Age .004 .014 .012 .755   
Race .534 .210 .095 .011   
Step 2 9.383 (5) ** .055
 Sex −.298 .229 −.045 .193   
 Years of Education .023 .032 .026 .471   
 Age −.016 .014 −.042 .261   
Race .548 .206 .097 .008   
Purpose in Life −1.326 .218 −.220 .000   
Sleep Quality Change Baseline to
1-Year Follow-up (n = 814)
Step 1      .556(4) .003
 Sex −.119 .202 −.021 .555   
 Education −.029 .028 −.037 .293   
 Age −.011 .012 −.034 .367   
 Race −.074 .181 −.407 .684   
Step 2      1.546 (5) .009
 Sex −.128 2.01 −.022 .526   
 Years of Education −.043 .028 −.055 .132   
 Age −.004 .012 −.012 .746   
 Race −.078 .180 −.016 .665   
Purpose in Life .449 .192 .087 .019   
Sleep Quality Change Baseline to
2-Year Follow-up (n = 550)
Step 1      .857(4) .006
 Sex .098 .245 .017 .689   
 Education −.032 .034 −.040 .352   
 Age .018 .016 .050 .269   
 Race .265 .226 .053 .240   
Step 2      .855 (5) .008
 Sex .087 .245 .015 .724   
 Years of Education −.039 .035 −.049 .270   
 Age .021 .016 .058 .205   
 Race .261 .226 .052 .249   
 Purpose in Life .235 .255 .041 .357   
Sleep Quality Change Baseline to
3-Year Follow-up (n = 245)
Step 1      .593(4) .012
 Sex −.398 .357 −.072 .266   
 Education .014 .054 .016 .801   
 Age .007 .025 .018 .787   
 Race .412 .345 .081 .234   
Step 2      .693 (5) .013
 Sex −.388 .358 −.071 .279   
 Years of Education .022 .057 .026 .702   
 Age .003 .026 .008 .914   
 Race .396 .347 .078 .255   
 Purpose in Life −.183 .363 −.036 .615   
  1. Four separate regression analyses. * = p ≤ .05, ** = p ≤ .01, bolding is used to emphasize significant predictors within the models