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Table 1 Examples of circadian rhythms in the immune system and the correspondent peaks and troughs of these oscillations

From: A circadian based inflammatory response – implications for respiratory disease and treatment

Organism Oscillating component Peak Trough Ref.
Mouse Number of Ly6Chi monocyte in blood and spleen ZT4-ZT8 ZT12-ZT24 (Nguyen et al. 2013)
Mouse Circulating total leukocyte counts ZT5 ZT13 (Scheiermann et al. 2012)
Mouse Circulating HSCs and their progenitors ZT5 ZT17 (Mendez-Ferrer et al. 2008)
Mouse Number of LSK cells per ml of blood ZT5 ZT13 (Mendez-Ferrer et al. 2008; Lucas et al. 2008)
Mouse Activation of NF-κB ZT6 ZT18 (Spengler et al. 2012)
Mouse TNF-α and IL-6 secreted by spleens harvested around the clock and stimulated with LPS CT8 CT20 (TNFα) CT16 (IL-6) (Keller et al. 2009)
Mouse Abundance of B cells and macrophages in the spleen CT8 CT16 (Keller et al. 2009)
Mouse Cytokine responses to LPS IL-1β, IL-6, MCP-1 and MIP1alpha ZT11 ZT19 (Marpegan et al. 2009)
Mouse TLR9 mRNA in macrophages ZT11 ZT3 (Silver et al. 2012)
Mouse Cytokine responses to LPS: IL-6, IL-12, CCL5, CXCL1 and CCL2 ZT12 ZT0 (Gibbs et al. 2012)
Mouse Recruitment of leukocytes from the blood to tissues ZT13 ZT5 (Scheiermann et al. 2012)
Mouse ICAM1 protein abundance in muscle ZT13 ZT5 (Scheiermann et al. 2012)
Mouse Ccl2 mRNA abundance in cremasteric endothelial cells ZT13 ZT1 (Scheiermann et al. 2012)
Mouse CXCR4 expression in bone marrow LSK cells ZT13 ZT5 (Lucas et al. 2008)
Mouse TLR9 mRNA and protein abundance in the spleen ZT19 ZT7 (Silver et al. 2012)
Mouse Phagocytic activity of neutrophils ZT20 ZT8 (Hriscu 2004)
Mouse CXCL12 content in bone marrow extracellular fluids ZT21 ZT9 (Mendez-Ferrer et al. 2008)
Human Counts of peripheral monocytes 12:00 am 8:00 am (Born et al. 1997)
Human Counts of peripheral Lymphocytes, B-cells, T-cells, T-helper, T-suppressor 2:00 am-3:00 am 11:00 am (Born et al. 1997)
Human Circulating eosinophils 4:00 am 12:00 pm (Haus and Smolensky 1999)
Human Circulating lymphocytes 12:00 am-4:00 am 8:00 am (Haus and Smolensky 1999)
Human Counts of peripheral NK 11:00 am-6:00 pm 2:00 am (Born et al. 1997)
Human CD4+ T helper, CD8+ cytotoxic T cells: naïve, central memory, effector memory 1:31 pm-2:41 pm 2:00 pm (Dimitrov et al. 2009)
Human Effector CD8+ T cells 3:34 pm 3:00 am (Dimitrov et al. 2009)
Human Circulating monocytes 8:00 pm 8 am (Haus and Smolensky 1999)
Human HSC / progenitor cells in peripheral blood 8:00 pm 8:00 am (Lucas et al. 2008)
Human Circulating neutrophils 8:00 pm 8:00 am (Haus and Smolensky 1999)
  1. Note that in animal research, time of day does not correspond to “clock-time” but it is instead relative to the time of day at which lights are turned on and off in the animal facilities. Thus, ZT stands for Zeitgeber Time and ZT0 corresponds to the time of day when lights are turned-on and if mice are in a LD12:12 (12 h of light and 12 h of dark) ZT12 corresponds to time of day when lights are turned-off. If animals are in constant conditions (normally constant dark, but it could be constant light) then CT is used instead of ZT. CT stands for Circadian Time and CT0 corresponds to the time of day when animals start their resting time (as if lights were turned-on) and CT12 corresponds to the time of day when their activity time starts (as if lights were turned off). In the human studies that we have listed here, the authors provide “clock-times”