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Table 1 Summary of studies included in the meta-analysis (n = 19)

From: Sleep problems in excessive technology use among adolescent: a systemic review and meta-analysis

Reference (author, year) country Study design & methods Participants (% male participants) Case definition of technology exposure and sleep outcomes Exposure type of technology Age range (or Average age) Sleep Outcomevariable
An, 2014 (An et al., 2014) China cross-sectional school-based study n = 13,723 (48%boys) YIAT, PSQI, MSQA Internet use 10.0–20.0 (15.26 ± 1.67) Sleep quality
Arora, 2012 (Arora et al., 2012) UK cross-sectional school-based study n = 624 (35.1%boys) SSHS, TUQ TV viewing; Video gaming; PC/laptop; Mobiles 11.0–18.0 Sleep quality
Arora, 2013 (Arora et al., 2013) UK cross-sectional school-based study n = 632 (36.1%boys) SSHS, TUQ Computer use; Mobile telephone use; TV viewing; Video gaming 11.0–18.0 (13.9 ± 2.0) Sleep duration
Arora, 2014 (Arora et al., 2014) UK cross-sectional study n = 738 (54.5%boys) SSHS, TUQ Television; Video gaming; Mobile telephone; Music; Computer or laptop (study); Internet (social) 11.0–13.0 Sleep duration, sleep-onset latency, sleep problems including early awakening, difficulty falling to sleep, night awakenings
Bruni,2015 (Bruni et al., 2015) Italy cross-sectional study n = 850 (42.8%boys) SSHS, MPIQ, SPQ, Questionnaire on the use of technology mobile phone-related activities; Internet-related activities 11.0–16.0 (13.53 ± 1.72) Sleep quality
Canan, 2013 (Fatih et al., 2013) Turkey cross-sectional school-based study n = 1956 (47.5%boys) YIAT, Questionnaire of sleep quality Chat rooms and Internet; messaging; Web surfing; playing online games; academic activities; Other Internet activities such as e-mail checking; reading online news; watching online videos; shopping. 14.0–18.0 (16.04 ± 1.02) Sleep duration, sleep problems including early awakening, difficulty falling to sleep, night awakenings
Cheung, 2010 (Cheung & Wong, 2011) Hong Kong school-based cross-sectional study n = 719 (60.4%boys) PSQI, CIAS, GHQ-12 Internet use 10.0–20.0 (14.70 ± 2.02) Sleep onset latency, Sleep duration, sleep quality
Choi, 2009 (Choi et al., 2009) Korea cross-sectional study n = 2336 (57.5%boys) YIAT, ESS Internet use 16.7 ± 1.0 Sleep duration, sleep problems including early awakening, difficulty falling to sleep, night awakenings
Hysing, 2015 (Hysing et al., 2015) Norway A large cross-sectional population-based survey study n = 9846 (46.5%boys) HBSC PC, cell phone, MP3 player, tablet, game console and TV. 16.0–19.0 Sleep problems
Jan, 2014 (Van den Bulck, 2004) Belgium cross-sectional study n = 2546 Questionnaires of media use, sleep variables, activity level. television-viewing; Computer-game playing; Internet use 14.76 ± 1.71 Sleep time
Lemola, 2014 (Lemola et al., 2014) Switzerland cross-sectional study n = 362 (55.2%boys) ISI, Media Use assess items. TV or movies, play video games, talk on the phone or text, and spend time online on FaceBook or in chat rooms or surf the Internet 12.0–17.0 (14.82 ± 1.26) Sleep duration, sleep difficulties
Liu, 2017 (Liu et al., 2017) China cross-sectional study n = 1196 (53%boys) MPAI, PSQI mobile phone 14.0–20.0 (16.75 ± 0.94) Sleep quality
Mak, 2014 (Mak et al., 2014) Hong Kong cross-sectional survey n = 762 (57.6%boys) PSQI, SQI, ESS, Questionnaires of technology use Screen viewing 12.0–20.0 (15.27 ± 1.70) Sleep quality, daytime sleepiness
Nuutinen, 2014 (Nuutinen et al., 2014) Finland, France and Denmark. a cross-sectional study n = 5402 (47%boys) HBSC computer use 15.61 ± 0.37 Sleep habits
Park, 2014 (Park, 2014) Korean a cross-sectional study n = 73,238 (52.4%boys) YIAT, Questionnaires of sleep satisfaction PIU 12.0–18.0 (15.06 ± 1.75) Sleep satisfaction
Park, 2017 (Park & Lee, 2017) Korean a cross-sectional study n = 70,696 (52.4%boys) YIAT, Questionnaires of sleep satisfaction PIU 12.0–18.0 (15.10 ± 1.75) Sleep satisfaction
Punamaki, 2006 (Punama-ki et al., 2006) Finland a cross-sectional study n = 7292 (44.8%boys) Questionnaires of ICT use and sleep habits computer use;
Mobile phone use
12.0–18.0 Sleeping habits
Shochat, 2010 (Shochat et al., 2010) Israeli a cross-sectional study n = 449 (50.1%boys) SSHS, EMFQ electronic media 14.0 ± 0.8 Sleep duration, sleep onset latency, sleep habits
Tan, 2016 (Tan et al., 2016) China a cross-sectional study n = 1661 (51.8%boys) YIAT, PSQI Internet use 12.0–18.0 Sleep disturbance
Sami, 2018 (Sami et al., 2018) Israel a cross-sectional study n = 631 (45.5%boys) YIAT, CASC Internet use 12.0–18.0 (14.59 ± 1.53) Sleep disturbance
Tamura, 2017 (Tamura et al., 2017) Japan a cross-sectional study n = 295 (58.6%boys) Questionnaires of mobile phone use, AIS Mobile phone use 15.0–19.0 (16.2 ± 0.9) Insomnia
Hawi, 2018 (Hawi et al., 2018) Lebanon a cross-sectional study n = 524 (47.9%boys) Questionnaires of sleep habit, IGD-20 Test Internet game 15.0–19.0 (16.2 ± 1.0) Sleep duration, sleep disturbance
Kim, 2018 (Kim et al., 2018) Korea a cross-sectional study n = 57,426 (50.3%boys) KYRBWS Internet use 12.0–15.0 (13.5) Sleep Satisfaction
  1. YIAT Young Internet Addiction Test, PSQI Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, MSQA Multidimensional Sub-health Questionnaire of Adolescents, SSHS School Sleep Habits Survey, TUQ Technology Use Questionnaire, MPIQ Mobile Phone Involvement Questionnaire, SPQ Shorter Promis Questionnaire, CIAS Chinese Internet Addiction Scale, GHQ-12 The 12-item version of General Health Questionnaire, ESS Epworth Sleepiness Scale, HBSC Health Behavior in School-aged Children, ISI Insomnia Severity Index, MPAI Mobile Phone Addiction Index, SQI Sleep Quality Index, ICT Information and Communication Technology, EMFQ Electronic Media and Fatigue questionnaire, CASC Child and Adolescent Sleep Checklist, AIS Athens Insomnia Scale, IGD Internet Gaming Disorder, KYRBWS Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey