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Table 1 Descriptive statistics of demographic, behavioural and biological characteristics by sex and cardio-metabolic risk

From: Association between cardiometabolic health and objectively-measured, free-living sleep parameters: a pilot study in a rural African setting

  Sex Cardio-metabolic Risk (JIS Harmonized definition)
Females (n = 99) Males (n = 40) p-values Low Risk (< 3 factors)
(n = 90)
High Risk (≥3 factors)
(n = 49)
p-values
Socio-demographic
 Age (years) 52.0 (6.9) 53.9 (7.5) 0.165 51.9 (7.4) 53.9 (6.3) 0.112
 Marital status (Married/Co-habiting) b 54.5 (54) 55.0 (22) 0.648 46.7 (42) 69.4 (34) 0.040
 Level of education (formal education) b 94.9 (94) 97.5 (39) 0.978 95.6 (96) 95.9 (47) 0.766
 Employed (Yes) b 27.3 (27) 27.5 (11) 0.567 73.3 (66) 71.4 (35) 0.844
 SES Quintile 3.6 (1.3) 3.5 (1.3) 0.652 3.4 (1.3) 4.0 (1.3) 0.008
Housing density a
 People/room 0.86 (0.75) 0.69 (0.78) 0.065 0.79 (0.75) 0.83 (0.88) 0.220
 People/bedroom 1.67 (1.25) 1.37 (1.00) 0.040 1.50 (1.25) 1.67 (1.0) 0.330
Behavioural
Diet a
  Fruit and vegetable intake (servings/day) 1.29 (1.00) 1.14 (0.00) 0.070 1.14 (1.00) 1.29 (2) 0.194
  Sugar sweetened beverages (servings/day) 0.29 (0.10) 0.29 (0.00) 0.010 0.29 (0.00) 0.29 (1.00) 0.131
Health-compromising
  Alcohol & Tobacco use (both current; Yes) 8.1 (8) 45.0 (18) < 0.001 18.9 (17) 18.4 (9) 0.972
Objectively-measured Sleep
  Quantity
  Sleep Time (minutes/day)
   Total 458 (67) 456 (106) 0.901 456 (73) 460 (92) 0.818
   Nocturnala 434 (61) 411 (72) 0.054 425 (60) 431 (73) 0.639
  Sufficient sleep categories b
   Total sleep time
     < 7 h/day 32.3 (32) 40.0 (16) 0.666 31.1 (28) 40.8 (20) 0.115
    7–9 h/day 52.5 (52) 45.0 (18)   56.7 (51) 38.8 (19)  
     > 9 h/day 15.2 (15) 15.0 (6)   12.2 (11) 20.4 (10)  
   Nocturnal sleep time
     < 7 h/night 45.5 (45) 50.0 (22) 0.546 45.6 (41) 53.1 (26) 0.122
    7–9 h/night 50.5 (50) 40.0 (16)   52.2 (47) 38.8 (19)  
     > 9 h/night 4.0 (4) 5.0 (2)   2.2 (2) 8.2 (4)  
  Quality
   Wake after sleep onset (minutes) 54 (16) 44 (17) 0.001 51 (18) 51 (15) 0.839
   Sleep efficiency (%) 87.6 (4.2) 89.5 (4.6) 0.017 88.2 (4.6) 88.0 (3.9) 0.789
    Achieved ≥85% b 79.8 (79) 82.5 (33) 0.816 80.0 (72) 81.6 (40) 1.000
   Activity counts during sleep (counts) 35,057 (9223) 27,448 (9223) 0.001 32,633 (9223) 33,298 (9223) 0.761
   Sleep fragmentation index (%) 26.7 (7.0) 28.2 (6.6) 0.243 26.5 (6.9) 28.3 (6.8) 0.151
   Within-person total sleep time SD (minutes) a 85 (51) 91 (92) 0.266 86 (53) 88 (63) 0.968
Objectively-measured Physical Activity
  VM counts/day (×  106) 2.49 (0.63) 2.00 (0.77) < 0.001 2.33 (0.75) 2.38 (0.60) 0.669
  Ambulation (steps/day) 14,288 (3691) 15,132 (6492) 0.443 14,470 (432) 14,681 (4378) 0.838
Biological
 Females (Yes) 65.6 (59) 81.6 (40) 0.052
 Waist circumference (cm) 93.0 (16.3) 80.8 (9.7) < 0.001 83.5 (14.0) 100.7 (12.4) < 0.001
 Body mass index (kg/m2) 30.4 (7.6) 21.7 (3.8) < 0.001 25.3 (6.9) 32.6 (7.2) < 0.001
 Body mass index categories b
  Under- weight (< 18.5 kg/m2) 3.0 (3) 17.5 (7) < 0.001 10.0 (9) 2.0 (1) < 0.001
  Normal weight (18.5–24.9 kg/m2) 21.2 (21) 55.0 (22)   43.3 (39) 8.2 (4)  
  Overweight (25–29.99 kg/m2) 23.2 (23) 27.5 (11)   24.4 (22) 24.5 (12)  
  Obese (≥30 kg/m2) 52.5 (52) 0.0 (0.0)   22.2 (20) 65.3 (32)  
 Conicity Index 1.23 (0.10) 1.23 (0.08) 0.940 1.20 (0.09) 1.29 (0.08) < 0.001
 HIV status (Yes) b 22.2 (22) 25.0 (10) 0.824 28.9 (26) 12.2 (6) 0.034
 Resting SBP (mmHg) 126 (20) 126 (24) 0.870 120 (17) 138 (22) < 0.001
 Resting DBP (mmHg) 81 (11) 78 (13) 0.157 77 (11) 86 (12) < 0.001
 MAP (mmHg) 96 (13) 94 (16) 0.384 91 (12) 104 (14) < 0.001
 Parity a,d 4 (2) 4 (2) 4 (3) 0.775
Cardio-metabolic
 Total Cholesterol (mmol/l) 4.10 (1.36) 3.72 (1.30) 0.139 4.00 (1.44) 3.98 (1.15) 0.972
 HDL-Cholesterol (mmol/l) 1.10 (0.47) 1.07 (0.52) 0.865 1.16 (0.53) 0.95 (0.34) 0.007
 LDL-Cholesterol (mmol/l) 2.51 (1.10) 2.15 (0.96) 0.072 2.40 (1.14) 2.40 (0.95) 0.997
 Triglyceride (mmol/l) 1.10 (0.58) 1.10 (0.61) 0.959 0.95 (0.47) 1.38 (0.68) < 0.001
 Glucose (mmol/l) 5.32 (1.89) 5.41 (1.86) 0.811 4.85 (1.26) 6.26 (2.42) < 0.001
 Insulin (μIU/ml) a 6.91 (7.75) 3.14 (5.61) 0.001 4.12 (6.27) 7.60 (7.05) 0.001
 HOMA-IR a 1.51 (1.91) 0.71 (1.72) 0.003 0.90 (1.53) 2.09 (1.96) 0.003
 HOMA-IR categories b
  Q1 (≤0.82) 42.2 (38) 16.3 (8) 0.002
  Q2 (0.83–2.09)   33.3 (30) 34.7 (17)  
  Q3 (2.10)   24.4 (22) 49.0 (24)  
 Metabolic Syndrome (JIS Harmonised definition) b
  No risk factor 11.1 (11) 12.5 (5) 0.006
  1 risk factor 15.2 (15) 42.5 (17)   
  2 risk factors 33.3 (33) 22.5 (9)   
   ≥ 3 risk factors 40.4 (40) 22.5 (9)   
 Waist circumference (male: ≥86 cm, females: ≥92 cm) 58.6 (58) 35.0 (14) 0.015 31.1 (28) 89.8 (44) < 0.001
 Blood pressure (SBP: ≥135 mmHg, DBP: ≥85 mmHg) 42.4 (42) 50.0 (20) 0.266 27.8 (25) 75.5 (37) < 0.001
 HDL-Cholesterol (male:< 1 mmol/, female< 1.3 mmol/l) 72.7 (72) 45.0 (18) 0.003 53.3 (48) 85.7 (42) < 0.001
 Triglyceride ≥1.7 mmol/l)) 15.2 (15) 7.5 (3) 0.276 5.6 (5) 26.5 (13) 0.001
 Glucose (≥5.6 mmol/l) 19.2 (19) 27.5 (11) 0.362 11.1 (10) 40.8 (20) < 0.001
 Metabolic Syndrome z-score 7.7 (−7.3; 9.4)c 6.1 (−4.5; 6.6) < 0.001 −1.17 (2.50) a 2.21 (1.97) 0.599
  1. Data reported as mean (SD), a median (IQR), b % (n) or c variance (minimum; maximum); d low risk: n = 59, high risk: n = 40; DBP Diastolic Blood Pressure, HOMA-IR Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance, HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus, JIS Joint Interim Statement, MAP Mean Arterial Pressure = \( \raisebox{1ex}{$2$}\!\left/ \!\raisebox{-1ex}{$3$}\right. \)DBP + \( \raisebox{1ex}{$1$}\!\left/ \!\raisebox{-1ex}{$3$}\right. \)SBP, Nocturnal 18 h01 - 05 h59, SES Socio-Economic Status, SBP Systolic Blood Pressure, VM Vector Magnitude