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Table 5 The differences between sleep category at 6 months and 12 months in predicting child working memory at 30 months

From: Sleep during infancy, inhibitory control and working memory in toddlers: findings from the FinnBrain cohort study

6 months
  10th pc 10-90th pc 90th pc Unadjusted model Adjusted model
  Mean (SD)a Mean (SD)a Mean (SD)a Statisticsb Statisticsc
Night sleep duration 11.15 (4.12) 11.81 (3.39) 12.39 (3.66) F(2,347) = 3.626, p = 0.028, Ƞ2 = 0.020 F(7,334) = 2.019, p = 0.134, Ƞ2 = 0.012
Day sleep duration 12.58 (3.18) 11.83 (3.59) 11.06 (3.78) F(2,348) = 1.747 p = 0.176, Ƞ2 = 0.010 F(7,335) = 1.495, p = 0.226, Ƞ2 = 0.009
Total sleep duration 12.00 (3.66) 11.90 (3.55) 11.75 (3.47) F(2,346) = 0.068, p = 0.934 Ƞ2 = 0.000 F(7,333) = 0.298, p = 0.742, Ƞ2 = 0.002
% daytime sleep 12.33 (3.60) 11.94 (3.46) 11.06 (4.11) F(2,346) = 1.142, p = 0.320, Ƞ2 = 0.007 F(7,333) = 0.822, p = 0.440, Ƞ2 = 0.005
Night awakenings 10.91 (4.09) 11.91 (3.58) 12.33 (2.82) F(2,342) = 0.477, p = 0.621, Ƞ2 = 0.003 F(7,329) = 0.963, p = 0.383, Ƞ2 = 0.006
Time awake / night 11.22 (3.50) 12.28 (3.23) 11.12 (4.19) F(2,332) = 1.534, p = 0.217, Ƞ2 = 0.009 F(7,320) = 1.879, p = 0.154, Ƞ2 = 0.012
12 months
  10th pc 10-90th pc 90th pc Unadjusted model Adjusted model
  Meana Meana Meana Statisticsb Statisticsc
Night sleep duration 11.39 (4.03) 12.30 (3.22) 11.70 (3.57) F(2,310) = 0.572, p = 0.565, Ƞ2 = 0.004 F(7,298) = 0.972, p = 0.379, Ƞ2 = 0.006
Day sleep duration 11.71 (3.87) 12.16 (3.46) 11.31 (3.98) F(2,316) = 1.113, p = 0.330, Ƞ2 = 0.007 F(7,304) = 1.123, p = 0.327, Ƞ2 = 0.007
Total sleep duration 12.29 (3.58) 12.02 (3.56) 11.33 (3.70) F(2,308) = 0.898, p = 0.409, Ƞ2 = 0.006 F(7,297) = 2.020, p = 0.135, Ƞ2 = 0.013
% daytime sleep 11.69 (3.72) 12.12 (3.49) 10.88 (4.07) F(2,308) = 1.565, p = 0.211, Ƞ2 = 0.010 F(7,297) = 2.075, p = 0.127, Ƞ2 = 0.014
Night awakenings 12.82 (3.24) 11.91 (3.69) 11.61 (3.08) F(2,304) = 2.038, p = 0.132, Ƞ2 = 0.013 F(7,294) = 1.283, p = 0.279, Ƞ2 = 0.009
Time awake / night 12.91 (3.05) 12.00 (3.60) 10.32 (3.82) F(2,282) = 5.002, p = 0.007, Ƞ2 = 0.034 F(7,271) = 4.731, p = 0.014, Ƞ2 = 0.031*
  1. Similar associations were obtained with non-transformed outcomes
  2. *p value> 0.050; Ƞ2=eta squared (i.e. measure of effect size in ANOVA)
  3. aMean and standard deviation (SD) of each group, in each of the sleep variables, are obtained from the raw outcome measure
  4. bUnadjusted model: No covariates
  5. cAdjusted model: gestational age, maternal education, age at 30 months, child’s sex and INTER-NDA mean cognitive score at 30 months